# 2 PropositionsΒΆ

The notion of Proposition, as it is used here, is a synonym for the well formed formulas (WFF) of the logic language implemented. The FriCAS domain Proposition(R) (PROP in the sequel) defines the type of logical formulas over terms of type Expression R. The terms of the language are therefore of type X::

R: Join(Ring, Comparable)
X ==> Expression R
P ==> Proposition R


Taking for example R:=Integer, the following expression are terms::

2::X
a::X
sin(b)::X
f:X->X, then f(c) is a term if c is a term
m:=operator 'mother --> m(Helen) is a term
f:=operator 'father --> f(Jack)  is a term
...


Simple propositions are built by predicates:

(a=2)$P -- equality between terms always gives a proposition -- whether true or false. (x>y)$P  -- besides equality we also have <,>,>=,<= built in,


The built-in predicates =,<,>,<=,>= and the functions true() and false() are the only ones which have not to defined explicitly.

Any predicate of any order can (and must) be defined by the function pred:

pred : (Symbol,List X) -> %


For example we can define predicates parent, grandparent as follows:

parent:(X,X)->P
grandparent:(X,X)->P

parent(x,y)==pred('parent,[x,y])
grandparent(x,y)==pred('grandparent,[x,y])


So that parent(father(x),x) for instance is a proposition if x is a term (a name like Helen or Jack in this case).

The logical connectives are then used to build the common logical formulas::

all(x,parent(father(x),x))
all(x,parent(mother(x),x))
all([x,y,z],(parent(x,y)/\parent(y,z))>>grandparent(x,z))


The propositions above would be written in mathematical language as

$\begin{split}\forall x:\mathtt{parent(father(x),x)} \\ \forall x:\mathtt{parent(mother(x),x))} \\ \forall x,y,z: \ (\mathtt{parent(x,y)}\wedge \ \mathtt{parent(y,z)}) \implies \mathtt{grandparent(x,z)}\end{split}$

The building of terms and propositions therefore is rather straightforward and thanks to FriCAS’ type inference, we always can be sure that the result will be well defined.